The Interspecific Hybrid Elaeis oleifera x E. guineensis :

A Solution for the Surinamese Oil Palm Industry.






The Oil Palm Industry in Suriname is under menace of extinction, faced with

the disease 'Fatal Yellowing' (Speerrot, Pudrici¢n fatal del cogollo, Ama-

relecimiento Fatal).  The causing agent of this condition remains unknown

and chances of finding a feasible cure any time soon appear extremely slim.

No trace of tolerance has been found in E. guineensis germplasm, but inter-

specific hybrids with E. oleifera invariably proved highly tolerant, if not

resistant.  The most promising way out of the present impasse therefore

lies in replanting devastated areas with such hybrids.


Interspecific hybrids until present do not seem competitive with commercial

E. guineensis in terms of Crude Palm Oil production.  However, indications

are that they could well compete if output of Refined Palm Oil is conside-

red.  For Suriname, where the primary objective of the Oil Palm Industry

is to supply the local market with Refined Palm Olein, this conclusion is

of utmost importance.


This article compiles the actual state of knowledge on yield potential of

interspecific hybrids and advocates a systematic inventarization and col-

lection effort in wild populations of E. oleifera in Suriname in order to

identify parent palms for a commercial scale replanting programme, to be

initiated as soon as possible.





Speerrot is bezig de Surinaamse oliepalmindustrie van de kaart te vegen.

Tot op heden is de oorzaak van deze aandoening onbekend en het ziet er niet

naar uit dat er binnen afzienbare tijd een in de practijk toepasbare oplos-

sing voor gevonden zal worden.  Binnen het genus Elaeis guineensis werd

geen enkele vorm van tolerantie aangetroffen, doch interspecifieke kruisin-

gen met Elaeis oleifera bleken steevast bijzonder tolerant, zoalniet resis-

tent.  Herbeplanting met dergelijke hybriden lijkt dus de meest belofte-

volle uitweg uit de huidige patstelling.


Gepubliceerde resultaten geven in het algemeen aan dat interspecifieke

hybriden niet kunnen concurreren met commerci‰le E. guineensis inzake

productie van Ruwe Palm Olie per Ha.  Nader onderzoek van deze resultaten

leert echter dat zij de vergelijking waarschijnlijk w‚l aankunnen indien

men de productiviteit beschouwt in termen van Geraffineerde Palm Olie.

Deze conclusie is van het grootste belang voor Suriname, waar de ‚‚rste

opdracht van de oliepalmindustrie bestaat in de spijsoliebevoorrading van

                            5de locale markt.


Dit artikel vat de huidige stand van kennis inzake het productiepotentieel

van deze hybriden samen en verdedigt een systematische inventarizatie van

het genetisch potentieel in wilde opstanden van E. oleifera in Suriname.

De hierbij te identificeren elitepalmen zullen dienen als ouders voor de

dringende grootschalige herbeplantingscampagne.




The American Oil Palm, Elaeis oleifera (formerly also called E. melanococca

and Corozo m.) has aroused scientific interest ever since the discovery of

its crossability with E. guineensis back in the forties.  In spite of pro-

mising initial results, only in very few occasions the interspecific hybrid

has been planted on a commercial scale.  In all of these cases, the inten-

tion was not to genetically improve the Oil Palm, but to preserve the cul-

ture, mostly after extinction of the original E.g. plantations by diseases

unknown in its African regions of origin and against which no resistance

could be found in pure bred progenies.  Published reports on the production

of these plantings do not arouse enthousiasm but one cannot omit to mention

that they invariably have been implemented with virtually unselected E.o.

parents, often from the immediate surroundings of the plantations.  The

worst results were obtained with germplasm of Central American origin,

which is known to have serious fertility problems.


As a result, hopes of exploiting the desirable characters of the American

palm in the culture crop shifted away from the straightforward F1 cross

toward stabilization of individual characters into E.g..  No need to em-

phasize that this won't give practical results in any near future.

Furthermore, it remains to be proven that resistance against Fatal Yellow-

ing can be genetically stabilized in anything beyond a F1.  Several

searchers therefore proposed the vegetative multiplication of individual

elite hybrids.  This method however will remain unavailable to most

developing countries for quite some time to come and does not take away the

need of breeding efforts to create such elite palms in the first place.


Although F1 hybrids in some cases slightly outyielded the E.g. standard in

terms of Crude Palm Oil per hectare (Tan, 1987), IRHO (1989), reporting on

one of the broadest trials ever set up, found them to produce between 9 and

90 % of commercial E.g., eliminating the prospect of hybrid plantings as

a feasible proposition.  Such results however need careful interpretation:


1.   Germplasm collection, selection and breeding in E.g. were initiated

     in the 1920's and continue to give spectacular results (a.o. Rajanaidu

     e.a., 1989).  E.o. was first systematically collected in Central Ame-

     rica, up from the late sixties.  One can therefore state that the

     oleifera parents used underwent next to no selection or breeding.  If

     E.g. were to be collected the same way (i.e. at random), an analogous

     trial, but within the species, would probably give similar results.


2.   The oil of hybrid palms is richer in unsaturated fatty acids and

     therefore more fluid than classical palm oil.  In most cases it is

     fluid at room temperature, and for use as a cooking oil under tropical

     conditions it will need no or next to no fractioning.  Refining of

     E.g. oil under these conditions takes out over 20 % of the Crude Palm

     Oil as stearin.  Therefore, in terms of cooking oil for tropical con-

     ditions, IRHO's best hybrids actually outyielded the E.g. standard.


3.   Height increment of a hybrid plantation is much lower than a classical

     one and its economic lifespan could be up to 3 times as long, depen-

     ding on the type of combination used.  This character should be appro-

     priately taken into consideration when evaluating the8 economical

     feasibility of a commercial venture.


Generally, literature mentions low natural fruitset and high bunch failure

in hybrids and according to IRHO (1980), artificial pollination would be

inevitable.  However, the extent of these problems proved extremely

variable between progenies (Arnaud, 1980; Schwendiman e.a.,1982 and 1983)

and strikingly high natural fertility was observed in hybrids of Surinamese

descent (Cloesen, 1987; Rao e.a., 1989).


Above mentioned findings permit to conclude that the general prejudice

against commercial feasibility of F1 hybrid plantings is not justified.

Especially in the case of Suriname, where an uncurable disease makes re-

planting with E.g. impossible and where the primary objective of Oil Palm

culture is not the export of CPO but the production of refined cooking oil

for the local market, hybrids may prove an attractive alternative for areas

and infrastructure otherwise obsolete.



1. Identifying elite Elaeis oleifera


The literature mentions three types of E.o., commonly named Central Ameri-

can, Brazilian and Surinamese.  These types give very different hybrids

with E.g., although remarkable differences have also been observed between

progenies from the same origin (Meunier e.a., 1976).


Palms found in Colombia are considered to belong to the Central American

group and the ones encountered in Venezuela (Anon., 1984) seem similar.

In Brazil, the pattern of variation appears closely linked to the hydrogeo-

graphic network.  Those from the North, along the highway towards Guyana,

resembling Surinamese, the others leaning towards the Central American type

(GhesquiŠre e.a., 1987, Barcelos e.a., 1985).  Nevertheless, some phenoty-

pic characters, such as the strikingly bigger fruitsize, clearly distin-

guish the Brazilians from both other types.  Oleiferas from the Peruvian

Amazon are similar to the ones found in the Manaus region of Brazil (Kahn

& Mejia, 19..).  The dwarf type palm endemic in Suriname also occurs in

French Guyana, which made Meunier (1975) distinguish it as the subtype



1.1. Selection parameters


Parents in hybridization efforts preferably should show high productivity

as well as good oil extraction.


Oleifera germplasm was first systematically collected in Colombia and

Central America up from the late sixties.  Selection in this material has

recently revealed the elite palms.  In Brazil, such efforts were initiated

only in the eighties and field planting of collected palms began in earnest

in 1985.  Therefore only very preliminary production results could have

been obtained up till now.  A systematic prospection for the Surinamese

type of E.o. has never been carried out and selection of parent palms for

high Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB) production is thus impossible, except for

the Central American type.


This however should not be considered a serious handicap.  Nine to ten year

old pure Surinamese oleiferas, planted 10 m apart in Malaysia, produced a

maximum of 15.5 kg of FFB per palm and per annum (Rao e.a., 1989), as com-

pared to a mean of over 200 kg for commercial E.g. in that country.  Their

hybrids however, like the ones from other oleiferas, can outyield E.

guineensis in terms of FFB.  This indicates that the contribution of E.

guineensis and the heterosis effect play a far more important role in the

determination of the hybrid's FFB yield potential than does the oleifera

parent.  Therefore, selection efforts should concentrate on the parameters

determining the oil extraction rate.  These characters, being less influen-

ced by the environment, can also reliably be measured in wild populations.


1.2. In search of genetic variability


Escobar (1980), reporting on E.o. collected from Central America and Colom-

bia, found the whole of the studied population to be very homogenous,

leaving little scope for selection on oil content.  This is reflected in

very low Standard Deviations, as illustrated in Table 1.  Far more diver-

sity was found in Brazil, by de Miranda Santos e.a. (1985) and Barcelos

e.a. (1985).  No systematic survey has been done on Surinamese oleifera but

comparing mentioned figures with the ones found by V.D.Woude & Schut

(1975), it may be clear that this subtype, except for Bunch Weight (BW),

Individual Fruit weight (IF) and Oil to Mesocarp (O/M), compares very well

to both others.  It is clear also that spread, and thus selection poten-

tial, is very high, especially if one takes into account that the latter

study refers to only 100 palms in a single population.


Few authors reported on Oil to Bunch (O/B) in pure E.o..  The best values

found were 7.5 % for Central American material (Escobar, 1980) and 10.2 %

for the Kuala Lumpur Melanococca (KLM), which is considered of Brazilian

origin (Rao e.a., 1989).  In both these results, a significant portion of

total O/B comes from parthenocarpic fruit, which is virtually absent in

Surinamese oleifera.  Combining data from V.D. Woude and Schut (1975) and

Martin (1970), it can be calculated that the best individual Surinamese

oleifera found probably had an extraction rate over 9 %, parthenocarpic

fruitset NOT taken into account.  Parthenocarpy increases mean Oil to

Fruit and hence O/B.  It is however also an indication of an innate defi-

cient fertility and a predisposition for bunch failure.  One should there-

fore select AGAINST parthenocarpy, as will be discussed later.


It may be clear from the above that a thorough collection effort in wild

populations in Suriname could produce elite palms able to compete with

Brazilian germplasm.  The main handicap of this type is its low O/M.

However, variability with respect to this character is considerable,

opening great prospects for selection.



2. Selecting a desirable type of hybrid


2.1. Problems associated with hybrids


Perhaps the most effective way to define a desirable hybrid begins with an

analysis of reported shortcomings.  The main problems mentioned in the

literature are deficient fertility and natural pollinization, low oil

content, excessive vegetative vigour and small fruitsize.


2.1.1. Bunch development and fruitset


High bunch failure and bad fruitset, which have been attributed to a

combination of reduced capacity to develop normal embryon sacs, reduced

pollen viability, problems in the release of pollen and low activity of

insects on both male and female flowers, are mainly observed in hybrids

based on Central American material (Arnaud, 1980; Schwendiman e.a., 1982

and 1983; Baudoin e.a., 1984).  None of these studies included Surinamese

progenies, but indications are that fertility is not a problem.  Cloesen

(1987) observed neither parthenocarpy or bunch failure in four Surinamese

F1 palms nor in backcrosses to E.o. and Rao e.a. (1989) also drew attention

to their unusual fertility.  The pure Surinamese oleifera is also reputed

to have high F/B and remarkably low parthenocarpy, even in rather isolated

wild palms.


Sterling e.a. (1988 B) suggested to take advantage of the outspoken

parthenocarpy observed in Central American hybrids for the development of

'parthenocarpic lines'.  This pathway however seems rather risky.  It is

true of course that parthenocarpic fruits contain more mesocarp and hence

more oil to fruit, but parthenocarpy also indicates an underlying deficient

fertility.  Although this kind of palms may produce well in small plots

surrounded by E.g., it is very doubtful that they would continue to do so

in pure stands, where natural fruitset could well be insufficient to

prevent massive bunch failure.  Artificial pollination during the whole

lifespan of a plantation can hardly be considered.  Furthermore, it would

annihilate the benefit of reduced trunk height increment, since flowers

above eye level would easily go undetected.


Chinchilla e.a. (1990), in Costa Rica, found E.o. and - to a lesser extent

- its hybrid and backcross to E.g. to be less attractive to the pollinating

insects Elaeidobius kamerunicus and Mystrops costarricensis.  Tan (1987),

however, recorded a dramatic improvement of fruitset in Brazilian hybrids

after introduction of E. kamerunicus in Malaysia.  The same author reported

the weevil to be able to breed in hybrid male inflorescences.  The apparent

contradiction between both findings may be attributed to the different

odour of male inflorescences of the parental oleifera.  The first author

most probably worked with Central American progenies, whose male inflores-

cences, contrary to E.g., lack the characteristic strong anis odour at

anthesis (L¢pez, 1980) or even spread a distasteful smell.  The male

inflorescence of the pure Surinamese oleifera having the same colour and

fragrance as E.g., there is no reason to believe that pollinating insects

would be less active on its hybrid than on E.g..  The lack of persistent

spathes around anthesizing female flowers in Surinamese E.o. and hybrids,

contrary to both other types, is likely to facilitate insect pollination

even further.  Apparent good fruitset in hybrid palms on Victoria estate

(Suriname), in 1992, with next to no E.g. left in the vicinity, seems to

confirm this hypothesis.


2.1.2. Extraction rate


Although hybrids with O/B as high as 30 % were mentioned to exist (Tam

e.a., 1976), laboratory extraction rates in the range of 10 to 25 % are

more commonly found in the literature, with the better results invariably

corresponding to Brazilian material (Hardon, 1969, Obasola, 1969, Meunier

e.a., 1976, Tam e.a., 1976, Escobar, 1980, Tan, 1987, Lubis e.a., 1987,

Sterling e.a., 1988 B, Mukesh & Tan, 1989 etc.).  Figures for Surinamese

hybrids are given in Table 2.


Low F/B and high parthenocarpy found by Lubis in Indonesia should be

attributed to deficient pollination.  M/F on the other hand was far

better in Indonesia than in Suriname, confirming the mediocre quality of

oleifera germplasm in Cloesen's observations.


Hardon (1969) Tam e.a. (1976) and Sterling e.a. (1988 B), amongst others,

confirm that bunch quality parameters in hybrids are intermediate between

parental types.  Therefore, hybrids based on selected Surinamese mother

palms should have O/B comparable to what is commonly obtained with other



2.1.3. Crown dimensions


Both Brazilian and Central American hybrids are reputed to develop longer

and more rigid fronds than E.g..  Therefore, Obasola (1969), Lubis e.a.

(1987) and Sterling e.a. (1988 B), amongst others, suggest they should be

planted further apart, reducing yield per ha (at least in the first years

after planting).  Although high yields have been obtained in hybrids

planted as dense as 148 palms per ha up till the 13th year of age (Tan,

1987), it is very doubtful they would continue to do so much longer.  The

Surinamese hybrid, to the contrary, has a vegetative development inter-

mediate between both parental species and can be planted in densities of

160 or even 180 palms per hectare.  Applying such corrections to published

results, Surinamese progenies outyield other origins in terms of FFB/ha.

In addition, their leaves, contrary to the stiff and flat habit in other

hybrids, gently bend in a parabolic curve, assuring a better light distri-

bution in the canopy and less mutual overshading.


It would be of interest to study crown dimensions in hybrid progenies of

dwarf oleiferas found in Northern Brazil.  The vegetative development of

these palms is very similar to Surinamese E.o., but on average they seem

to have better F/B, considerably higher O/DM, less saturated oil and fruits

more than double the size.  On the other hand however, they also seem less

fertile, as reflected in a far higher percentage parthenocarpy (Barcelos

e.a., 1985, V.D. Woude and Schut, 1975).


2.1.4. Size of bunch stalks and leaf petioles


Heavy frond petioles in Brazilian and Central American hybrids reportedly

slow down pruning and thick bunch stalks complicate harvesting operations

even further (Tan, 1987).  These characters most certainly reduce the

benefit of the lower height increment, since problems are likely to grow

with the length of the palms.  In Surinamese hybrids, bunch stalks are

comparable to those of E.g. and leaf petiole cross section is smaller.


2.1.5. Fruitsize


Individual (fertile) fruits in pure E.o. are small, averaging slightly

above 3 grams in Central American types.  Surinamese fruits are even

smaller.  In Brazil and Peru, fruitsizes over 14 g have been observed and

most populations average over 7 g.


Fruitsize in hybrids is scarcely documented in the literature.  Generally,

figures hover around 7 to 8 g (Obasola, 1969, Sterling e.a., 1988 B),

unless Dura (or Tenera) were used as guineensis parent (Escobar, 1980,

Mukesh and Tan, 1989).  In the latter case, extremes up to 18 g have been

reported.  Curiously however, Brazilian hybrids do not seem to give bigger

fruits than others and Surinamese fruits do not seem smaller (Meunier,

1976, Cloesen, 1987).  It is thus not obvious where to search in order to

optimize this character and the influence of the guineensis parent may well

be decisive.  It should also be noted that not all commercial lines of E.g.

have significantly bigger fruits.


2.2. Take advantage of desirable properties


Desirable characteristics, shared by all types of hybrids include reduced

trunk height increment; an oil richer in insaturated fatty acids, carotenes

and tocopherols; a brighter colour of mature fruit and a high degree of

tolerance, or even resistance to next to all economically important pests

and diseases of E.g. in Latin America.  The latter aspect will not be

discussed in this article.


2.2.1. Reduced trunk height increment


Length increment is a major factor determining the cost of harvesting and

the economic lifespan of a plantation.  Lubis e.a. (1987) reported annual

height increments of 18 cm for Surinamese hybrids, as compared to 32 and

34 cm for Brazilian and Central American ones, and 46 cm for commercial

E.g..  Cloesen (1987) found height increment of Surinamese hybrids (about

17 cm/yr) to be comparable to pure Colombian oleiferas and estimated their

economic lifespan nearly 3 times as long as E.g. and at least 1.5 times as

long as Colombian hybrids in the same experiment.


It should be mentioned, however, that the smaller habit of the Surinamese

hybrid also reflects in a smaller trunk volume.  Sterling e.a. (1987 and

1988 A), studying 'compact' material, attributed their strong tendency

for alternate periods of high and low production to reduced carbohydrate

storage capacity in their smaller trunks.  The same problem could occur in

Surinamese hybrids when planted in areas with a pronounced dry season.


2.2.2. Higher unsaturation of oil


The mesocarp oil of pure E.o. melts at 13-14øC, as compared to some 24øC

for classical CPO.  The former therefore would not need fractionation for

use as a salad oil, even in temperate climates.  Producing vegetable oil

for use in tropical conditions, Palm Oil would be cristalized at 22øC and

refining efficiency (olein/CPO) after double fractionation would be about

72 %, under conditions at Victoria (Suriname).  No comparable fractionation

results on hybrid oils were found in the literature, but indications are

that the latter are fluid at room temperature and that their melting point

is 22øC or lower.  As a result, fractionation would be obsolete and overall

refining efficiency would most certainly exceed 90 %.


Oil unsaturation tends to be higher in Central American oleiferas and

hybrids than in both other origins, although figures by Tam e.a. (1976)

suggest that promising palms are to be found also in the progenies of the

"Kuala Lumpur Melanococca", which is considered Brazilian.  The few

reported values for Surinamese material are within the range found in

Brazil, as shown in Table 3.  Figures by Meunier e.a. (1976) indicate that

unsaturation is very close to the average between parent palms, suggesting

that selection of the guineensis parent may be equally important.


2.2.3. Bright colour of ripe fruit


The clear colour at ripeness of the hybrid fruit, as compared to E.g.

(nigrescens type) must result in less "omitted" bunches and less unripe

harvesting.  The Surinamese hybrid is particularly interesting in this

respect : like its oleifera parent, ripe fruits are bright orange, com-

parable to the E. guineensis 'virescens' type, even though immature fruits

may be black.


2.2.4. Carotenes and tocopherols


The hybrid's oil is also richer in carotenes (provitamin A) and tocopherols

(vitamin E).  However, untill refining methods will be developed that do

not completely eliminate these nutritionally important components, these

properties can hardly be used as an argument in favor of hybrid oils.



Proposed strategy


Planting material for the first Oil Palm plantings in Suriname was produced

in the country itself.  As superior seeds from the Far East became commer-

cially available in the eighties, local breeding efforts were discontinued,

but the corresponding know-how still exists.  Although Suriname is not the

only country affected by Fatal Yellowing, no commercial seed house has a

breeding programme for interspecific hybrids and a seed garden with

selected Surinamese E.o. does not exist.  It is therefore considered more

than worthwile that a renewed selection and breeding capacity be set up in

the country.  The Ministry of Agriculture's Palm Research Centre (POC)

would herein collaborate with the Common Vegetable Oils amd Fats Companies



Most known wild populations of E.o. in Suriname are easily accessible, so

that selection of parent palms, as well as hybrid seed production could be

done right on the spot.  Only later on, E.o. seed gardens would be laid

out, using elite material identified in the first phase.  However, even

preliminary selection results are expected no sooner than within two years.

In the mean time, hybrid seed from elite oleifera of other origins should

be imported so that replanting can be initiated without delay.  A project

proposal has been formulated in order to obtain international financing for

the import component of such an effort.





The Surinamese Oil Palm Industry will be wiped out, unless areas devastated

by Fatal Yellowing are replanted as soon as possible.  F1 interspecific

hybrids with E. oleifera are the only planting material proven to survive

and produce in such areas.  These hybrids can be produced readily, and the

best progenies will outyield the former E.g. plantings, at least in terms

of Refined Palm Oil per Hectare.


Elite oleifera parents, to the best of our present knowledge, should be

sought in Brazil.  However, germplasm of similar quality is to be found in

Suriname itself.  The resulting Surinamese hybrids would have a signifi-

cantly longer economic life as well as improved natural fertility and

would be easier to harvest than any other type.  A project proposal has

been worked out, aimed at such a genuine genetic improvement effort based

on national resources.





The author, Henri-Paul Cloesen, was Head of the Agronomical Service (LD)

at Victoria Oil Palm Estate (Suriname) between 1985 and 1987.  The present

article is a literature study.




          different origins.



           BW    St/B   F/B    M/F    O/M   O/DM    K/F   Sh/F    IF 

8MIN      0.7     -    33.5   32.9     -    19.5    7.9   25.9    1.1

MAX       3.4     -    74.3   64.4     -    42.1   23.3   51.5    4.3

MEAN      1.9     -    61.7   45.1     -    31.9   15.3   39.6    2.8


SD EST.  0.68     -   10.20   7.88     -    5.65   3.85   6.40   0.80

CV EST. 35.53     -   16.53  17.46     -   17.71  25.16  16.16  28.57




           BW   St/B  F/B(*)   M/F    O/M   O/DM    K/F   Sh/F    IF 

MIN       0.9    1.8   11.2   14.6     -    16.1     -    10.8   3.45

MAX      18.0   28.8   90.5   62.3     -    57.2     -    56.9  14.66

MEAN      6.7   10.6  68.94   46.0     -   42.84     -    41.1   7.87

SD       3.67     -   15.74   6.51     -    6.52     -      -    2.30

CV      54.78     -   26.50  14.15     -   15.23     -      -   29.22




       BW (**)  St/B    F/B    M/F   O/M    O/DM    K/F   Sh/F    IF 

MIN        -    15.2     -      -    12.7     -      -      -      - 

MAX        -    21.8     -      -    24.8     -      -      -      - 

MEAN     11.6   18.7   60.8   36.5   18.8     -    15.9   47.6   3.31

CV         -     9.4    4.7    5.5   15.4     -     8.5    3.9  11.65


SD CALC.   -    1.76   2.86   2.01   2.90     -    1.35   1.86   0.39

MIN CALC.  -    15.2   55.1   32.5   13.0     -    13.2   43.9   2.53

MAX CALC.  -    22.2   66.5   40.5   24.6     -    18.6   51.3   4.09







Table 2.  BUNCH CHARACTERISTICS in Surinamese hybrids


Source           F/B    M/F    M/B    O/M   O/B  N  Observations


Lubis (1987)F   33.4   67.5   22.5   35.8   8.1  ?  E.g.= Pisifera

            P   16.2   89.9   14.6   17.9   2.6 

            T   49.6          37.1         10.7 


Cloesen (1987)  73.9   59.0   43.6         15.6  4  E.g. = Pisifera

                                                    O/M estimated as 35 %

                                                    No parth. fruitset.


Lubis (1975)F   41.5   46.7   19.4   38.6   7.5  42 E.g. = Deli Dura

(in Meunier P   14.3   88.5   12.7   24.7   3.1               

e.a., 1976) T   55.8          32.0         10.6 



F : Fertile fruits  P : Parthenocarpic fruits  T : Total




ORIGIN      E.o.           Hybrid         E.g.   OBSERVATIONS/SOURCE



  unspecif. 68.9                                9

                           58.3                 7

  Lelydorp  68.2 - 73.7                          Means 2 populations3

            69.8 - 74.2                          7 analyses2



  unspecif. 60.0 - 77.7                          All known populations6

                           58.3                 7

  KLM (*)                  62.3           44.2  1

            77.9 - 82.6    57.0 - 69.0    49.8   Mother = E.g. Dura5

  PERU (**) 63.6                                 1 Population8



  unspecif. 78.7           63.9           49.9   Hyb. prob. Colombian9

  Monter¡a  Up to 82       Up to 75              4

            78.7           67.0           54.9   E.g. = La M‚4

            78.7           62.7           47.0   E.g. = Yangambi4

  Turbo     71.7 (**)      65.15          44.2   1



(*)  The Kuala Lumpur Melanococca is considered Brazilian

(**) Palms found in Peru resemble those from Manaus, Brazil.         

(***)Sample heavily oxidized.  This may have lowered % unsaturated acids.



(1) Hardon (1969)        (4) Meunier e.a. (1976)  (7) Lubis e.a. (1987)

(2) Martin (1970)        (5) Tam e.a. (1976)      (8) Kahn & M. (19..)

(3) V.D. Woude & S.(1975)(6) Barcelos e.a. (1985) (9) Rao e.a. (1989)




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